Architectural Terracotta From Olbia According to Excavations of the 1920-ies

  • Alla Buiskykh National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Archaeology, Dr. Sc., Deputy Director https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7233-1288
  • Nataliia Harkusha Mykolaiv Regional Local History Museum, Senior Researcher of the scientific-exposition department
  • Maryna Chepkasova Mykolaiv Regional Local History Museum, Senior Researcher of the Funds department
Keywords: Olbia, Mykolaiv Regional Local History Museum, architectural terracotta, temple, house

Abstract

The article is devoted to the introduction into scientific circulation of a collection of terracotta architectural details from the excavations of the Upper City of Olbia in the second half of the 1920-ies. Archaeological research was conducted by the Scientific Council of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences according to the plan proposed by B. V. Farmakovskyi after the resumption of excavations in Olbia in 1924. Two of the details, fragments of polychrome simas of the Late Archaic period, most likely were related to the cult monumental structures of the Western Temenos and were found in the layer of its destruction.

The remaining details were found during excavations of residential houses in the central (excavation sites A, H, D) and north-eastern part of the city (excavation site I). These are fragments of eaves tiles, the facades of which are decorated with embossed ornaments of two variants — Ionian cyma with pearls and meander, in the metopes of which are placed letters or four- and eight-petalled palmettes. The tile category includes a pentagonal antefix with a relief image of an Athena mask in a helmet and half lotus flowers on the sides. Fragments of gutters (simas) — a facade with a Satire mask and a water-supply decorated in the shape of a lion’s head with an open mouth were also found.

Ceramic architectural details, which served as decoration and were an integral part of the roof of residential buildings, became widespread in Olbia in the second half of the IV—III c. BC. Such details are also known in almost all ancient centers of the Western Black Sea coast. Modern ceramic studies of similar architectural terracotta from Messambria and Apollonia Pontica have determined its local production. The obtained data allowed correcting not only the information on handicraft production in Olbia, as such a tile is traditionally, after the opinion of I. B. Brashynskyi, belonged to the local ceramic production, but also to offer a new direction of the Black Sea trade in ceramic building materials. Another important area for Olbia was the tiles import from Sinop.

References

Abikulova, M. I., Lopushynskii, A. I., Sikoza, D. M. 2015. Antychna kolektsiia Khersonkoho kraeznavchoho muzeiu. Kherson: Ailant.
Brashynskii, I. B. 1996. Olviia. In: I. B. Zeest (ed.). Keramicheskoe proizvodstvo i antichnyie keramicheskie stroitelnyie materialy. Svod arkheologicheskikh istochnikov, G 1-20. Moskva: Nauka, p. 36-45.
Bujskikh, A. V. 2020. Cherepitsa i arkhitekturnaia terrakota khrama Afrodity v Olvii. In: A. V., Bujskikh, N. A., Son (eds.). From Antiquity to Christianity. Kyiv: IA NANU, p. 45-60.
Bujskikh, A. V., Chepkasova, M. I. 2010. Kolletziia vostochgrecheskoi i korinfskoi keramiki iz Olvii v sobranii Nikolaevskogo oblastnogo kraevedcheskogo muzeia (obshchaia kharakteristika). In: Istoriia. Etnohrafiia. Kultura. Novi doslidzhennia. VIII Mykolaivska kraeznavcha konferentsiia. Mykolaiv, p. 81-82.
Bujskikh, A. V., Chepkasova, M. I. 2019. Samoskii kylik iz kollektsii Mykolaivskoho kraeznavchoho muzeiu “Staroflotski kazarmy”. Arheologia, 1, p. 69-74.
Dlozhevskii, S. 1928. Pro arkheolohichni pozkopky v Olbii v r.r. 1924, 1925 I 1926. Skhidnyi svit, 3-4, p. 289-294.
Dlozhevskii, S. 1930. Olbiia (Khronika doslidzhen ta ikh naslidky). Zapyski Ukrainskoho Naukovoho Tovarystva, 34. Zbirnyk Poludnevoi Ukrainy. Kyiv, p. 7-37. Instytut rukopysu NBUV, f. X, spr. 15293-15294, verstka.
Karasev, A. N. 1976. B. V. Pharmakovskii i Olviia. In: N. I., Sokolskii et al. (eds). Khudozhesvennaia kultura i arkheologiia antichnogo mira. Moskva: Nauka, p. 13-21.
Karasev, A. N., Levi, E. I. 1976. Issledovaniia Olvii posle B. V. Pharmakovskogo (1027-1970). In: N. I., Sokolskii et al. (eds). Khudozhesvennaia kultura i arkheologiia antichnogo mira. Moskva: Nauka, p. 22-45.
Karyshkovkii, P. O. 1956. O klassifikatsii serebrianykh staterov Olvii IV v. do n. e. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta istorii materialnoi kultury, 66, p. 69-77.
Kariaka, O. 2015. Diialnist Vseukrainskoho Arkheolohichnoho Komitetu z orhanizatsii robit Olviiskoi ekspedytsii za chasiv Borysa Volodymyrovycha Pharmakovskoho, Materialy i doslidzhennia z arkheolohii Prykarpattia i Volyni, 16, p. 295-306.
Kobylina, M. M. 1965. Milet. Moskva: Nauka.
Krapivina, V. V. 2001. Olvia: problema okhorony ta arkheolohichni doslidzhennia, Arheologia 4, p. 9-19.
Kryzhitskii, S. D. 1993. Arkhitektura antichnykh gosudarstv Severnogo Prichernomoria. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Kryzhitskii, S. D., Rusiaeva, A. S., Nazarchuk, V. I. 2006a. Arkhitekturnaia terrakota VI-V vv. In: A. I., Aibabin at al. (eds). Drevneishyi temenos Olvii Pontiiskoi. Materials in Archaeology, History and Ethnography of Tauria, Suppl. 2. Simferopol, p. 100-116.
Kryzhitskii, S. D., Rusiaeva, A. S., Nazarchuk, V. I. 2006b. Arkhitekturnaia terrakota ellinisticheskogo vremeni. In: A. I., Aibabin at al. (eds). Drevneishyi temenos Olvii Pontiiskoi. Materials in Archaeology, History and Ethnography of Tauria, Suppl. 2. Simferopol, p. 114-116.
Okhotnikov, S. B., Ostroverkhov, A. S. 1993. Sviatilishche Akhilla na ostrove Levke (Zmeinom). Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Papanova, V. A. 2006. Urochishche Sto Mogyl (necropol Olvii Pontiiskoi). Kyiv: Znannia Ukrainy.
Puklina, O. O. 2015. Sklianyi posud z Olvii v zbirtsi Mykolaivskoho oblasnoho kraeznavchoho muzeiu “Staroflotski kazarmy”. IX Mykolaivska oblasna kraeznavcha konferenciia. Istoriia, Etnohrafiia. Kultura. Novi doslidzhennia. Mykolaiv, p. 208-210.
Rusiaeva, A.S. 2006. Stroitelnyie ostatki khramov. In: A. I., Aibabin at al. (eds). Drevneishyi temenos Olvii Pontiiskoi. Materials in Archaeology, History and Ethnography of Tauria, Suppl. 2. Simferopol, p. 32-42.
Slavin, L. M. 1963. Zakhidna storona olviiskoi ahory. Arheologia, XV, p. 71-94.
Skudnova, V. M. 1959. Iz neizdannykh materialov Olvii VI-V vv. do n. e. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, XXIX-XXX, p. 248-262.
Pharmakovskii, B. V. 1906. Raskopki v Olvii v 1902-1903. Izvestiia Arkheologicheskoi komissii, 13. Sankt-Petersburg.
Pharmakovskii, B. V. 1908. Raskopki v Olvii. Otchet Arkheologicheskoi komissii za 1905 god. Sankt-Petersburg, p. 1-35.
Pharmakovskii, B. V. 1913. Raskopki v Olvii. Otchet Arkheologicheskoi komissii za 1909-1910 gg. Sankt-Petersburg, p. 1-105.
Pharmakovskii, B. V. 1926. Otchet o raskopkakh v Olvii v 1924 godu. Soobshcheniia Gosudarstvennoi akademii istorii materialnoi kultury, I. Leningrad, p. 143-163.
Chechulina, I. 2020. Antychna chornolakova keramika z ekspozitsii Mykolaiskoho oblasnoho kraeznavchoho muzeiu. In: Materialy III Mizhnarodnoi arkheolohichnoi konferentsii ‛Olviiskii forum’ (do 70-richchia z dnia narodzhenna V. V. Krapivinoi). Mykolaiv, p. 84-87.
Sheiko, I. 2020. Antychna laterna z poselennia na o. Berezan. In: Materialy III Mizhnarodnoi arkheolohichnoi konferentsii ‛Olviiskii forum’ (do 70-richchia z dnia narodzhenna V. V. Krapivinoi). Mykolaiv, p. 50-51.
Sheiko, I. M., Chepkasova, M. I. 2015. Antychni svitylnyki u zibranni Mykolaiskoho oblasnoho kraeznavchoho muzeiu. In: IX Mykolaivska oblasna kraeznavcha konferenciia. Istoriia, Etnohrafiia. Kultura. Novi doslidzhennia. Mykolaiv, p. 213-216.
Billot, M.-F. 2010. Terres cuites architecturales de Sinope de l’époque archaїque à l’époque hellénistique. Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia, 16, p. 217-359.
Bujskich, A. 2010. Die antiken Architekturformen im Nördlichen Schwarzmeergebiet. Herkunft und Entwicklung. Archäologische Forschungen, 26. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
Bujskikh, A., Chistov, D., 2018. Architectural Details and Monumental Buildings at Borysthenes. Caiete ARA 9, p. 5-22.
Harkusha, N. 2020. Kaminskii Feodosii Tymofijovich, in: Ukrainski arkheology kriz epokhy. Doslidzhennya Stepovogo Pobuzhzhya. Mykolaiv, p. 158-163.
Gerkan, A. v. 1925. Kalabaktepe, Athenatempel und Umgebung. Milet I, 8. Berlin.
Damyanov, M., Stoyanova, D. 2019. Temples et autels archaïques. In: Sur les pas des archéologues. Apollonia du Pont. Collections du Louvre et des musées de Bulgarie. Catalogue de l’exposition. Sofia, p. 57-63.
Hellmann, M.-Ch. 2002. L’architecture grecque. I. Les principes de la construction. Paris: Éd. A. et J. Picard.
Kovachev, V., Stoyanov, T., Stanimirova, Ts., Stoyanova, D., Lozanov, I., Mladenov, V. 2011. Archaeometric Study of Hellenistic Roof Tiles and Amphorae from Apollonia and Mesambria: An Attempt at Identifying Local Production. Patabs II, p. 203-244.
Ognenova-Marinova, L. 1980. Tuilles et terres cuites architecturales, in: V. Velkov (ed.), Nessebre 2. Sofia, p. 110-155.
Ohnesorg. A. 2009. Die Dachterrakotten aus dem Heraion von Samos, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung, 124, S. 19-167.
Stoyanova, D. 2010. The Importation of the Roof Tiles from Sinope and Heraclea Pontica to the Western Black sea Area. ACSS 16, p. 441-465.
Stoyanova, D., Lozanov, I. 2011. Tiles with Englyphic Stamps from Mesambria Pontica. Acta Musei Varnaensis VIII-2, p. 253-266.
Stoyanova, D., Damyanov, M. 2019. The Palmette Antefixes in the Black Sea Area: New Evidence from Apollonia Pontica. In: H. Kaba, G. Kan Şahin, B. M. Akarsu, O. Bozoğlan (eds.). International Symposium of Sinope and Black Sea Archaeology “Ancient Sinope and the Black Sea”, Sinop, p. 195-206.
Zimmermann, K. 1990а. Archaische Dachterrakotten aus Histria. In: N. A. Winter (ed.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Archaic Greek Architectural Terracottas. December 2-4, 1988. Hesperia 59, 1, p. 223-233.
Zimmermann, K. 1990b. Zu den Dachterrakotten griechischer Zeit aus Histria. In P. Alexandrescu, W. Schuller (Hrsg.). Histria. Eine Griechenstadt an der rumänischen Schwarzmeerküste. Xenia 25. Konstanz, S. 155-177.
Zimmermann, K. 1994. Traufziegel mit Reliefmäander aus dem Schwarzmeergebiet. In N. A. Winter (ed.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Greek Architectural Terracottas of the Classical and Hellenistic Periods, December 12-15, 1991. Hesperia Suppl. XXVII. Princeton, N. Jersey, p. 221-251.
Zimmermann, K. 2007. Frühe Dachterrakotten aus Milet und dem Pontosgebiet. In Ju. Cobet et al. (Hrsg.). Frühes Ionien eine Bestandsaufnahme. Paionion-Symposion Güzelçamli 26. September — 1. Oktober 1999, Milesische Forschungen 5. Mainz-am-Rhein, S. 631-636.
Zimmermann K. 2014. Palmettenantefixe aus Histria. In: Histria, histoire et archéologie en Mer Noire. Pontica XLVII, Suppl. III. S. 113-166.

Abstract views: 24
PDF Downloads: 17
Published
2021-03-23
Section
Publication of Archaeological Material