Roman Terracottas From the Lower City of Olbia from the collection of the National Museum of the History of Ukraine

Keywords: terracotta, eagles, Roman soldier, Roman garrison, Olbia, Lower City

Abstract

The article introduces clay figurines of eagles and terracotta of a Roman soldier, which were found during excavations at the Lower City of Olbia in the 1930—1940-ies, and are kept in the National Museum of the History of Ukraine. The iconography of the eagles is similar to the terracotta statuette of an eagle found in the praetorium building in the Upper City of Olbia. The series of rooms, in which the eagle figurines were found, belong to the Roman garrison structures, which were located in the port area of the city. Terracotta eagle figurines could be used in military sanctuaries, and imitate Roman military standards, or be associated with the worship of Jupiter. Analogies to these products are known from the Roman fortresses on the Danube and in Dacia province. The fragment of terracotta with a shield was a part of a Roman soldier figurine with hanging limbs. The warrior was depicted wearing a Roman military cloak (sagum). This indicates his higher rank, in contrast to the soldiers dressed in tunics. In his left hand he holds a shield (clipeus), which depicts a deity in armor, with rays above his head. The terracotta depicts warriors armed with gladius, and belted with a Roman military belt (cingulum militare). They depict the servicemen of the auxiliary troops of the Roman army — auxilia, or, given the non-standard shape of their shields, the sailors of the Moesian fleet (milites classiarii), whose units were stationed in Olbia, as is known from the epigraphic finds. The places of their finds mark the points of deployment of the Roman troops in the Northern Black Sea region. These terracottas could serve as votives in ritual rites associated with the cult of Mithras, which appears in Olbia as a result of the Roman garrison deployment in the city during the second half of the 2nd — first half of the 3rd c. AD.

References

Abikulova, M. Yi., Lopushynskyi, A. I., Sikoza, D. M. 2015. Antychna kolektsiia Khersonskoho kraieznavchoho muzeiu: kataloh. Kherson: Ailant.
Arkheolohichni roboty po doslidzhenniu Olvii. 1935. Olviiska arkheolohichna ekspedytsiia 1935 r. Opys znakhidok Olviiskoi arkheolohichnoi ekspedytsii 1935 r. vid No. 1-2757. Olviia. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. No. 17, 1935/72.
Arkheolohichni roboty po doslidzhenniu Olvii. 1937. Olviiska arkheolohichna ekspedytsiia 1937 r. Opys znakhidok Olviiskoi arkheolohichnoi ekspedytsii 1937 r. vid No. 1-2088. Olviia. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. No. 7, 1937/90, 90 а.
Arkheolohichni roboty po doslidzhenniu Olvii. 1938. Olviiska arkheolohichna ekspedytsiia 1938 r. Rozkopy I ta NH. Inventarnyi opys znakhidok na okremykh arkushakh No. 1-1994. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. No. 17, 1938/132 а.
Blavatskii, V. D. 1951. Kharaks. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, 19, p. 250-291.
Bruiako, I. V., Dzigovskii, A. N., Sekerskaia, N. M. 2008. Nikonii rimskoi epokhi. Odessa: SMIL.
Buiskikh, A. V., Kuzmishchev, A. G., Novichenkova, M. V., Sheiko, I. N., Chechulina, I. A. 2015. Otchet o rabotakh na uchastke R-25 v Olvii v 2014 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, f. e. 2015/9.
Buiskikh, S. B. 1991. Fortifikatsiia Olviiskogo gosudarstva (pervye veka nashei ery). Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Buiskikh, S. B. 2006. Figurnye sosudy dionisiiskogo kruga iz Zolotogo Mysa. Severnoe Prichernomore v epokhu antichnosti i srednevekovia. Trudy Gosudarstvennogo istoricheskogo muzeia, 159, p. 206-230.
Burakov, A. V. 1976. Kozyrskoe gorodishche rubezha i pervykh stoletii nashei ery. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Burakov, A. V. 1988. Terakota voina z poselennia Kozyrka. Arheologia, 63, p. 73-75.
Vetshtein, R. I. 1957. Raskopki na rimskoi tsitadeli Olvii. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii Akademii nauk SSSR, 7, p. 78-80.
Vetshtein, R. I. 1967. Raskopki v tsentre rimskoi tsitadeli Olvii v 1956-1966 gg. Arkheologicheskie issledovaniia na Ukraine, 1, p. 134-137.
Vetshtein, R. Y. 1972. Rozkopky rymskoi tsytadeli v Olvii v 1969 r. Arkheolohichni doslidzhennia na Ukraini, 4, p. 171-174.
Doroshko, V. V. 2019. Voennaia politika Rima v Severo-Zapadnom Prichernomore i Iugo-Zapadnoi Tavrike v I - seredine III v. n. e. Dissertatsiia k. i. n. Moskovskii Gosudarstvennyi universitet im. M. V. Lomonosova.
Zhuravlev, D. V., Khmelevskii, D. N. 2018. Figurnyi sosud v forme golovy afrikantsa iz Olvii. Problemy istorii, filologii, kultury, 3, s. 198-214.
Zograf, A. N. 1940. Monety iz raskopok Olvii v 1935-1936 gg. Olviia. T. 1. Kyiv: AN URSR, p. 211-258.
Ivanchik, A. I. 2013. Novye dannye o rimskom voennom prisutstvii na Bospore. Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1, p. 59-77.
Kozlenko, R. O. 2015. Terakota rymskoho voina z terytorii khory Olvii. Eminak, 3 (11), p. 35-38.
Kozlenko, R. O. 2018. Frahmenty terakot rymskykh voiniv z Olvii. Eminak, 1 (25), Forum Olbicum II. Pam’iati V. V. Krapivinoi (do 150-richchia doslidzhennia Olvii), p. 96.
Kozlenko, R. A. 2019. Terrakotovye statuetki voinov, kleimo C • PINN / EROTIS, jeleznye izdeliya s uchastka Т-4. In: Buiskikh, A. V., Fornasier, J., Sheiko, I. N., Chechylina, I. A. (eds.) Otchet o raskopkah na uchastke Т-4 v Olvii v 2018 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, p. 46-47.
Kozlenko, R. O. 2020. Rymska viiskova prysutnist v Olvii (I-III st. n. e.). Avtoreferat dysertatsii k. i. n. Kyiv: IA NANU.
Kolesnichenko, A. N. 2017. Bronzovaia statuetka orla iz raskopok na o. Berezan v 1902 godu. Zapysky viddilu numizmatyky i torevtyky Odeskoho arkheolohichnoho muzeiu, 3, p. 166-171.
Kolobov, A. B. 2004. Statuetka bronzovoi ptitsy iz kollektsii Muzeia istorii Permskogo Universiteta: detal rimskogo voinskogo snariazheniia? Novyi Giperborei: mezhvuz. sb. nauch. tr. Perm, s 8-22.
Krapivina, V. V. 2014. Olviya Pontiys’ka. Greko-rymskiy ta pizdnioantichniy periody. Kyiv: O. Filyk.
Krapivina, V. V., Buiskikh, A. V., Krutilov, V. V. 2005. Otchet o raskopkah na uchastke R-25 v Olvii v 2004 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, f. e. 2004/168.
Krapivina, V. V., Buiskikh, A. V. 2008. Otchet o rabotakh na uchastke R-25 v Olvii v 2008 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, f. e. 2008/97.
Levi, E. A. 1970. Terrakoty iz Olvii. Terrakoty Severnogo Prichernomoria. Svod arkheologicheskikh istochnikov, 37, p. 33-56.
Novichenkova, N. G. 1998. Rimskoe voennoe snariazhenie iz sviatilishcha u perevala Gurzufskoe Sedlo. Vestnik drevnei istorii, 2, p. 51-56.
Novichenkova, M. V., Buiskikh, A. V. 2019. Akvily z Olvii. In: Chabai, V. P. (ed.). I Vseukrainskiy arheologichnyi z’izd: materialy roboty. Kyiv, p. 351-359.
Rusiaeva, A. S. 1992. Religiia i kulty antichnoi Olvii. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Saveleva, E. S. 2018. Terrakotovaia statuetka rimskogo voina iz Kartala. Starodavnie Prychornomoria, 12. p. 481-484.
Savelieva, K. S., Saveliev, O. K. 2012. Terakotovi statuetky rymskykh voiniv z Pivnichno-Zakhidnoho Prychornomor’ia. Arheologia, 1, p. 42-47.
Slavin, L. M. 1940. Otchet o raskopkakh Olvii v 1935-1936 gg. Olviia. T. 1. Kyiv: AN URSR, p. 9-84.
Treister, M. Yu. 1993. Rimliane v Pantikapee. Vestnik drevnei istorii, 2, p. 50-74.
Treister, M. Yu. 1998. K nakhodke bronzovykh i serebrianykh statuetok v sviatilishche u perevala Gurzufskoe sedlo. Vestnik drevnei istorii, 2, p. 68-80.
Khudiak, M. M. 1936. Arkheolohichni roboty po doslidzhenniu Olvii 1936 r. NH. Kv. 13 v y 14 v. Shchodennyk rozkopiv. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, f.e. 1936/17, No. 82.
Khudiak, M. M. 1937. Arkheolohichni roboty po doslidzhenniu Olvii 1937 r. Raskop NH. Kv. 13 y 14, 23 y 24. Shchodennyk rozkopiv No. 1. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, f.e. 1937/17, No. 108.
Khudiak, M. M. 1938. Arkheolohichni roboty po doslidzhenniu Olvii 1938 r. Raskop NH. Kv. 33 y 34, 32C,42C,43 y 44. Shchodennyk rozkopiv No. 2. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f 64, f.e. /17, No. 127.
Khudiak, M. M. 1940. Terrakoty. Olviia. T. 1. Kyiv: AN URSR, p. 85-103.
Tsvetaeva, G. A. 1979. Bospor i Rim. Moskva: Nauka.
Shevchenko, T. M. 2010. Pidvisni terakoty z Olvii ta yikh vykorystannia v kultovii praktytsi. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 3, p. 94-104.
Shevchenko, T. M. 2020. Katalog terrakot, znaidenyh u 2018 i 2019 rr. na dilyanci Т-4 v Olvii. In: Buiskikh, A. V., Fornasier, J., Sheiko, I. N., Kozlenko, R. A., Chechylina, I. A. (eds.) Otchet o raskopkah na uchastke Т-4 v Olvii v 2019 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, p. 28-46.
Bâltâc, A., Ştribulescu, C. 2017. Teracote din Aşezarea Civilă Romană de la Ostrov (Durostorum), Judeţul Constanţa (III). Cercetări Arheologice, XXIV, p. 151-186.
Bondoc, D. 2005. Tipare şi Figurine Ceramice Romane. Muzeul Romana Ţiului Caracal (Figurine Ceramice Romane de la Romula). Craiova: Editura Sitech.
Bondoc, D. 2005 a. Figurine Ceramice Romane. Muzeul Oltenei Craiova. Craiova: Editura Sitech.
Campbell, D. 2009. Eagles, Flags and Little Boars. The Cult of the Standarts in the Roman Army. Ancient Warfare Magazine III, 6, p. 34-39.
Coulston, J. C. N. 2014. Monumentalizing Military Service: Soldiers in Romano-British Sculpture. In: Collins, R., McIntosh, F. (eds.). Life in the Limes: Studies of the people and objects of the Roman frontiers. Oxford: Oxbow Books, p. 65-78.
Durham, E. 2013. Symbols of Power: The Silchester Bronze Eagle and Eagles in Roman Britain. The Archaeological Journal, 170, p. 78-105.
Gencheva, E. 2013. The Everyday Life of the Roman Legionary on the Lower Danube: the Catalogue of the Exhibition. Sofia: National Institute of Archaeology with Museum Ruse.
Gudea, N. 1989. Porolissvm. Un complex archeologic daco-roman de la marginea de nord a Imperiului roman. I. Acta Museum Porolissensis, XIII. Zalгu.
Guldager Bilde, P. 2010. Terracotas. In: Lejpunskaja, N. A., Guldager Bilde, P., Højte, J. M., Krapivina, V. V., Kryžickij, S. D. (eds.). The Lower City of Olbia (Sector NGS) in the 6th Century BC to the 4th Century AD. Vol. 1: Text. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, p. 439-463.
Neal, D. S. 1989. The Stanwick Villa, Northants: An Interim Report on the Excavations of 1984-88. Britannia, XX, p. 149-168.
Popilian, G. 1997. Les centres de production ceramique d’Oltenie. In: Teodor, S., et al (ed.). Études sur la ceramique romaine et daco-romaine de la Dacie et de la Mesie inferieure. Timişoara: Tipografia Universităţii din Timişoara, p. 7-20.
Popilian, G., Bondoc, D. 2016. A Ceramic Mould from Romula. In: Panaite, A., Cîrjan, R., Căpiţă, C. (eds.). Moesica et Christiana: Studies in Honour of Professor Alexandru Barnea. Brăila, 2016, p. 367-378.
Rostovtzeff, M. I., Bellinger, A. R., Brown, F. E., Welles, C. B. 1952. The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Preliminary Report of the Ninth Season of Work, 1935-1936. Part III. The Palace of the Dux Ripae and the Dolichenum. New Haven.
Sheiko, I. M., Puklina, O. O. 2019. Roman Lamps from the National Museum of History of Ukraine. Arheologia, 2, p. 74-94.
Tudor, D., Popilian, G., Bondoc, D., Gudea, N. 2011. Castrul Roman de la Slăveni. Cluj-Napoca: Mega.
Vladkova, P. 2009. About the Roman Standarts and Standart Bearers (According to Date from the Province Moesia Inferior). In: Vladimirova-Aladћova, D. (ed.). Gedenkschrift für Velizar Velkov. Sofia, p. 334-339.

Abstract views: 34
PDF Downloads: 31
Published
2021-03-23
Section
Publication of Archaeological Material