Reflection of the Family Structure of the Population at the Biritual Burial Ground of the Saltiv Culture in Chervona Hirka

Keywords: Saltiv culture, burial ground, inhumation, cremation burial, family plot, undivided family

Abstract

The article presents the preliminary results of the analysis of individual burial complexes discovered at the biritual burial ground of the Saltiv culture in Chervona Hirka (Balakliia district of Kharkiv Oblast). During the work at the burial ground, 313 burials were examined, of which 191 were performed as inhumations, and 122 – cremations. Also, 18 cases were recorded at the burial ground when some burials were inlet into the filling of the burial pits of other burials without destroying the latter. At the same time, most often, the main burial was an inhumation according to the rite, and the burial inlet into the filling of the burial pit belonged to the category of cremations (Table 1). Among the complexes under consideration, the burials performed simultaneously (one-act) and those made after a certain period of time are presented. The latter are numerically dominant over one-act burial complexes. In 18 cases, 11 burials belong to paired ones, in 6 cases a burial contained the remains of three deceased. In the filling of burial No. 75/ k-4, the remains of three deceased were found, deliberately placed there. Thus, in Chervona Hirka burial ground, cases are presented of one burial pit usage for the simultaneous or different graves of 2—4 deceased. In these complexes, we tend to see the burials of close relatives, members of the same family (husband and wife, mother with children, minor children). An analysis of the sex and age composition of people buried in these complex burials allows us to speak of the existence of undivided families of the paternal or fraternal type among the population who left the Chervona Hirka burial ground, along with small families. The most striking evidence of the latter is the fixation of a group of 11 burials (6 inhumations and 5 cremations) on an area of 25 m2, the main one is the burial of a man accompanied by a horse (burial No. 75/ k-4) (Fig. 6: 1). At the same time, in the filling of three graves from this group (No. 75/ k-4, No. 36 and No. 74) there were burial complexes, deliberately placed there: Nos. 37, 38, 58, 59, 64, 71 (Table 1).

References

Aksenov, V. S. 2008. Ob odnom iz variantov pogrebalnogo obriada prabolgarskogo naseleniia saltovskoi kultury verkhnego Podontsovia (po materialam biritualnogo mogilnika Krasnaia Gorka). Drinovskii sbornik, II. Kharkov; Sofiia: Prof. Marin Drinov, p. 125 — 137.
Aksyonov, V. S. 2017. Mogilnik saltovo-maiatskoi kultury u s. Chervonaia Gusarovka na Severskom Doncze. Kharkov: Vid. Rozhko S.G.
Aksyonov, V. S. 2018. Zubchatyie podveski u naseleniia saltovo-maiatskoi kultury basseina Severskogo Dontsa. Kharkovskii istoriko-arkheologicheskii sbornik, 22. Kharkov: Machulin, p. 11 — 27.
Aksyonov, V. S., Laptev, A. A. 2014. Osvoieniie naseleniem Khazarskogo kaganata lesostepnogo Podontsovia: vzgliad na problemu. Stepi Evropy v epokhu srednevekovia, 12. Khazarskoie vremia. Donetsk, DonNU, p. 25-50.
Aksenov, V. S., Mikheev, V. K. 2003. Pogrebeniia s krymskoi posudoi mogilnika saltovskoi kultury Krasnaia Gorka. Vita antigua, 5 — 6, p. 179 — 191.
Aleksandrov, V. A. 1981. Tipologiia russkoi krestianskoi semii v epokhu feodalizma. Istoriia SSSR, 3, p. 78 — 96.
Afanasiev, G. E. 1993. Donskie alany. Soczialnyie struktury alano-asso-burtasskogo naseleniia Srednego Dona. Moskva: Nauka.
Baialieva, T. D. 1972. Doislamskie verovaniia i ikh perezhitki u kirgizov. Frunze: Ilim.
Butanaev, V. Ya. 1988. Vospitanie malenkikh detei u khakasov. Tradiczionnoe vospitanie detei u narodov Sibiri. Leningrad: Nauka, pp. 206 — 221.
Vinnikov, A. Z., Sarapulkin, V. A. 2008. Bolgary v Pooskole (Mandrovskii mogilnik). Voronezh: VGPU.
Ichenskaia, O. V. 1981. Ob odnom iz variantov pogrebalnogo obriada saltovtsev po materialam Netailovskogo mogilnika. Drevnosti Srednego Podneprovia. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, p. 80 — 96.
Kokoeva, A. B. 2014. Pogrebalnyie obriady osetin, sviazannyie so smertyiudetei. Fundamentalnye issledovaniia, 6 (5), p. 1074 — 1075.
Koloda, V. V. 2008. K voprosu o saltovskikh sunduchkakh-lartsakh. Kharkovskii arkheologicheskii sbornik, 4. Kharkov: Machulin L. I., p. 5 — 15.
Kosarev, M. F. 2003. Osnovy iazycheskogo miroponimaniia. Moskva: Ladoga-100.
Krasilnikov, K. I. 1990. O nekotorykh voprosakh pogrebalnogo obriada prabolgar Srednedonechia. Rannie bolgary i finno-ugry v Vostochnoi Evrope. Kazan: KIYaLI, p. 28 — 44.
Krasilnikov, K. I., Krasilnikova, L. I. 2005. Mogilnik u sela Lysogorovka — novyi istochnik po etnoistorii stepei Podontsovia rannego srednevekovia. Stepi Evropy v epokhu srednevekovia, 4. Khazarskoie vremia, p. 187 — 244.
Merpert, N. Ya. 1949. Verkhnee Saltovo. Avtoreferat dis. … kand. ist. nauk. Moskva; Leningrad.
Mikheev, V. K. 1990. Pogrebalnyi obriad Krasnogorskogo mogilnika saltovo-maiatskoi kultury. Rannie bolgary i finno-ugry v Vostochnoi Evrope. Kazan: KIYaLI, p. 45 — 52.
Mikheev, V. K. 2004. Severo-zapadnaia okraina Khazarii v svete novykh arkheologicheskikh otkrytii. Khazarskii almanakh, 3, p. 74 — 93.
Pletneva, S. A. 1967. Ot kochevii k gorodam. Saltovo-maiatskaia kultura. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, 146.
Pletneva, S. A. 1989. Na slaviano-khazarskom pogranichie. Dmitrievskii arkheologicheskii kompleks. Moskva: Nauka.
Pletneva, S. A., Nikolaenko, A. G. 1976. Volokonovskii drevnebolgarskii mogilnik. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 3, p. 279 — 298.
Smirnova, Ya. S. 1983. Semia i semeinyi byt narodov Severnogo Kavkaza. Moskva: Nauka.
Tatarinov, S. I., Fediaev, S. V. 2001. Novyie rannebolgarskie pogrebeniia iz mogilnika Dronovka-3 (Limanskoe ozero) na Severskom Dontse. Stepi Evropy v epokhu srednevekovia, 2. Khazarskoie vremia, p. 365 — 374.
Toleiubaev, A. T. 1991. Relikty doislamskikh verovanii v semeinoi obriadnosti kazakhov (XIX — nachalo XX v.). Alma-Ata: Gylym.
Fedorova, E. G. 1988. Rebenok v traditsionnoi mansiiskoi semiie. Traditsionnoie vospitanie detei u narodov Sibiri. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 80 — 95.
Fedorovskii, A. S. 1913. Verkhne-Saltovskii kamernyi mogilnik VIII — X vv. Vestnik Kharkovskogo istoriko-filologicheskogo obshchestva, 5. Kharkov: Tip. Pechatnoe delo, p. 1 — 15.
Khazanov, A. M. 1975. Sotsialnaia istoriia skifov. Moskva: Nauka.
Khoruzhaia, M. V. 2013. Zakhoroneniia v yamakh s podboem Verkhne-Saltovskogo katakombnogo mogilnika (po materialam raskopok 1984 — 2012 gg.). Drevnosti 2013, 12, p. 211 — 224
Khoruzhaia, M. V. 2015. Detskie pogrebeniia iz katakomb Verkhne-Saltovskogo arkheologicheskogo kompleksa (popytka polovozrastnoi i sotsialnoi interpretatsii). Drevnosti 2014 — 2015, 13, p. 257 — 274.
Chesnokov, Yu. V. 1988. Nekotoryie aspekty traditsionnogo vospitaniia detei v kulture olennykh chukchei i koriakov. Traditsionnoe vospitanie detei u narodov Sibiri. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 140 — 151.
Shvetsov, M. L. 1991. Mogilnik “Zlivki”. Problemi na prablgarskata istoriia i kultura, 2. Sofiia: Agres, p. 109 — 123.
Shvetsov, M. L., Sanzharov, S. N., Pryn, A. V. 2001. Dva novykh selskikh mogilnika v Podontsoviie. Stepi Evropy v epokhu srednevekovia, 2. Khazarskoie vremia, p. 333 — 346.

Abstract views: 125
PDF Downloads: 65
Published
2021-12-10
Section
Articles