The Population of the Cherniakhiv Culture According to the Materials of the Cherkasy Centre Burial Ground (Craniological Aspect)

  • Tetiana Rudych DSc in History, Leading Research Fellow, Stone Age Archaeology Department, Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3396-504X
Keywords: : Cherniakhiv-Sântana de Mureș culture, Roman time, anthropology, craniology

Abstract

The burial ground Cherkasy-Center of the Cherniakhiv culture was investigated in 1991—2003. Researchers date its foundation to the turn of 3rd—4th centuries AD, and the completion of functioning by the first decades of 5th century.
During the excavations, anthropological material was obtained.
The skulls of this population were measured and studied using classical anthropological methods, and comparative analysis was carried out using multivariate statistics (factor analysis).
The male series is characterized by a medium-long, narrow, meso-dolichocranial cranium. The face is narrow, short, mesognatic. Horizontal profiling of the face at the upper level is on the border of sharp and moderate, its profiling at the zygomaxillary level is sharp. Orbits are medium- high by the index; the nose is wide by the index. The bones of the nose protrude well.
The average characteristics of the features of this group fit into the range of inergroup variations in the series of the Cherniakhiv culture.
The Cherkasy-Center group demonstrates anthropological links with series from the western and south-western regions of the Cherniakhiv culture (Budeşti, Nahorne, Mălăiești, Uspenka).
When included in the analysis of the groups of the Wielbark culture and the series of the late Scythians and Sarmatians, the series from Cherkasy turns out to be among the groups that demonstrate a somewhat greater closeness to the series of the Wielbark culture.
The average characteristics of the female series is a long, medium wide, high cranium, mesocranial in shape. The face is medium-wide and medium-high, it is orthognathic. Horizontal profiling of the face at the upper level is on the border of sharp and moderate, its profiling at the zygomaxillary level is sharp. The orbits are medium-high in terms of the index, the nose is medium-wide. The bones of the nose protrude mediumly. The nose bridge is high.
According to the results of statistical analysis, the female series from Cherkasy demonstrates closeness of the Cherniakhiv series from the burial grounds of Budeşti, Mălăiești, Cherneliv, Kholmske. The series also shows a greater affinity to individual series of the Wielbark culture than to the groups of the late Scythians and, all the more, the Sarmatians.

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Published
2022-03-23
Section
Publication of Archaeological Material