The Glassware of Late Roman Time from Viitenky: the Technological Aspect

  • Vladyslav Shchepachenko Master in History, Postgraduate Student at the Historiography, Source Studies and Archaeology Department of the Faculty of Historical Studies in the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9137-235X
Keywords: glassware, Cherniakhiv culture, late Roman time, Great Migrations period

Abstract

This article is devoted to the study of the technological features of the manufacturing and decoration of glass vessels from archaeological complex of late Roman time – early Great Migrations period at Viitenky in the East of Ukraine.

The observations of the evolution of shapes, decor and individual morphological features of Roman glassware has reached almost a century in their development now. During this time, researchers have repeatedly emphasized their information potential in chronological constructions and searches for production centres of certain types. The technical and technological approach in the study of glass found its place in the investigation of Cherniakhiv antiquities. In our opinion, in combination with traditional archaeological methods, it remains one of the most promising ways to resolve the issue of the origin of Cherniakhiv glass vessels, even today. The purpose of our study is a comparative analysis of the technological features of glassware from Viitenky, vessels from the area of the Cherniakhiv culture in Ukraine and items from the Roman provinces.

The analysis of the materials allows drawing some conclusions. The set of technological methods registered during the study of glassware from Viitenky finds parallels both among Cherniakhiv glass vessels and among provincial Roman vessels. However, some of them are asynchronous to those existing in the provinces in late Roman and late Antique times. Despite the fact that the same morphological and decorative elements occur both among barbarian cups and among vessels of the Provincial-Roman circle, the chronology of their existence in both categories of Cherniakhiv glassware is often different. Observations of the chronology of their existence among Cherniakhiv vessels on the territory of Ukraine suggest certain changes in the set of technological methods used for their manufacturing and decoration, which appear no earlier than in the middle of the 4th century.

References

Antonaras, A. Ch. 2017. Glassware and Glassworking in Thessaloniki 1st Century BC — 6th Century AD. Oxford: Oxuniprint.

Barkoczi, L. 1988. Pannonische Glasfunde in Ungarn, Studia Archaeologica, 9, Budapest.

Bokii, N. M., Kozyr, I. A. 2005. Pam’iatky cherniakhivskoi kultury na pohranychchi stepu i lisostepu Dniprovskoho Pravoberezhzhia (za materialamy Kirovohradshchyny). Naukovi zapysky. Seriia: Istorychni nauky, 9, Kirovohrad: KDPU imeni Volodymyra Vynnychenka, s. 30-45.

Cholokova, A. I. 2015. Networks of distribution at the margins of the Empire. Late Antique glass vessels from the Lower Danube region. Thesis for Ph. D. in Archaeology, University College London.

Chornyi, A. M. 2015. Sklianyi posud cherniakhivskoi kultury (istoriohrafichnyi aspekt). Arheologia, 1, s. 125-144.

Clairmont, C. W. 1963. The Glass Vessels. In: Perkins, A. (ed.). The excavations at Dura-Europos conducted by Yale University and the French Academy of inscriptions and letters. Final report IV, Part V. New Haven: Dura-Europos publications.

Cool, H. E. M. 1995. Glass vessels of the fourth and early fifth century in Roman Britain. In: Foy, D. (ed.). Le verre de l’Antiquité tardive et du Haut Moyen Âge. Typologie — Chronologie — Diffusion. Association Française pour l’Archéologie du Verre, VIIIe rencontre, Guiry-en-Venix, 18-19 novembre 1993. Musée archéologique départemental du Val d’Oise. p. 11-26.

Cool, H. E. M., Price, J. 1995. Roman vessel glass from excavations in Colchester, 1971-85. Colchester Archaeological Report, 8, Colchester: Colchester Archaeological Trust Ltd.

Dévai, K. 2016. Glass vessels from late Roman times found in Pannonia. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 67. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, p. 255-286. https://doi.org/10.1556/072.2016.67.2.4

Eggers, H.-J. 1951. Der Römische Import im Freien Germanien. Hamburg: Hamburgisches Muweum für Völkerkunde und Vorgeschichte.

Fünfschilling, S. 2015. Die römischen Gläser aus Augst und Kaiseraugst. Kommentierter Formenkatalog und ausgewählte Neufunde 1981-2010 aus Augusta Raurica. Text und Formenkatalog. Forschungen in Augst, 51. Augst: Museum Augusta Raurica.

Gavritukhin 2017 Glass vessels of the final of the Chernyakhov culture. In: Na hranicích impéria. Extra fines imperii. Jaroslavu Tejralovi k 80. narozeninám. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, p. 83-109.

Gopkalo, O. V. 2011. Otnositelnaia khronologiia muzhskikh pogrebenii cherniakhovskoi kultury. K postanovke problemy. In: Petrauskas, O. V., Shyshkyn, R. H. (ed.). Cherniakhivska kultura: materialy doslidzhen (Oium, 1). Kyiv; Lutsk: IA NAN Ukrainy, IIO NPU im. M. P. Drahomanova, p. 66-96.

Gopkalo, O. V. 2012. The Cherniachov Cultureʼs cemetery Ruzhychanka. In: Vorontsov, A. M., Gavritukhin, I. O. (ed.) Lesnaia i lesostepnaia zony Vostochnoi Evropy v epokhi rimskikh vliianii i Velikogo pereseleniia narodov. Konferentsiia 3, Tula: Gosudarstvennyi muzei-zapovednik ʻKulikovo poleʼ, p. 330-401.

Gorokhovskii, E. L. 1988. Khronologiia cherniakhovskikh mogilnikov Lesostepnoi Ukrainy. In: Baran, V. D. (ed.). Trudy V Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa arkheologov-slavistov. Kyiv, 18-25 sentiabria 1985 goda. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, p. 34-46.

Gereta, I. 2007. Mohylnyk cherniakhivskoi kultury v s. Bila na Ternopilshchyni. Ternopil: Merkiuri-Ternopil.

Gereta, I. P. 1995. Novi pamiatky Zakhidnoho Podillia u svitli problem cherniakhivskoi kultury. Materialy ta doslidzhennia z arkheolohii Prykarpattia ta Volyni, 6, p. 144-163.

Gereta, I. P. 2013. Chernelevo-Ruskyi mohylnyk. Tylishchak, V. S. (upor.). In: Petrauskas, O. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. (ed.). Oium, 3, Kyiv; Ternopil: TzOV ʻTerno-hrafʼ.

Heiko, A. V., Reida, R. M., Sapiehin, S. V. 2016. Research and Rescue Excavations of Shyshatskyi Burial Ground. In: Suprunenko, O. B. (ed.). Starozhytnosti Livoberezhnoho Podniprovia. Kyiv: Tsentr pamiatkoznavstva NANU i UTOPIK, p. 140-149.

Kazanskyi, M. M. 2011. Radagais et la fin de la civilisation de Černjahov. In: Petrauskas, O. V., Shyshkyn, R. H. (ed.). Cherniakhivska kultura: materialy doslidzhen (Oium, 1). Kyiv; Lutsk: IA NAN Ukrainy, IIO NPU im. M. P. Drahomanova, p. 22-32.

Kravchenko, N. M. 1973. Pamiatky cherniakhivskoi kultury na Porossi. Arheologia, 8, p. 99-108.

Lіkhter, Yu. A. 1998. Glassware of the Chernyakhovo culture. Rossiiskaia arkheologiia, 2, p. 41-53.

Likhter, Yu. A., Gopkalo, O. V. 2007. Skliannyi posud z poselennia Teremtsi. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Naukovo-doslidnoho instytutu ukrainoznavstva, 15, p. 188-196.

Lyubichev, M. V. 2019a. Frühgeschichte der Dnepr-Donec-Waldsteppe im 1-5. Jahrhundert. (Teil 1). Ostrogothica-Serie, 2. Kharkiv: Estet Print.

Lyubichev, M. V. 2019b. Dva pogrebeniia s ʻneordinarnymiʼ khronoindikatorami iz mogilnika cherniakhovskoi kultury Voitenki 1. In: Gavritukhin, I. O., Vorontsov, A. M. (ed.). Lesnaia i lesostepnaia zony Vostochnoi Evropy v epokhi rimskikh vliianii i Velikogo pereseleniia narodov. Konferentsiia 4, Chast 2. Tula: Gosudarstvennyi muzei-zapovednik ʻKulikovo poleʼ, p. 191-209.

Magomedov, B. V. 1999. The Chernyakhov Cemeteries Kurniki on South Boug. Stratum plus, 4, p. 102-121.

Nikitina, G. F. 1988. Mogilnik u s. Oselivka Kelmenetskogo raiona Chernovitskoi obl. In: Kropotkin, V. V. (ed.) Mogilniki cherniakhovskoi kultury. Moskva: Nauka, p. 5-97.

Nikitina, G. F. 1996. Mogilniki cherniakhovskoi kultury v Severnoi Bukovine i Bessarabii. Moskva: Nauka.

Petrauskas, O. V. 2016. Glasgefässe vom Typ Eggers/230 in der Černjachiv-Kultur: chronologische Aspekt. In: Petrauskas, O. V., Gorbanenko, S. A., Gopkalo, O. V. (ed.). Cherniakhivska kultura: do 85-richchia vid dnia narodzhennia I. S. Vynokura (Oium, 5). Kyiv: IA NANU, p. 89-106.

Petrauskas, O. V., Tsyndrovskaia, L. A. 2002. Nakhodki cherniakhovskoi kultury vblizi s. Zhovnino (kollektsiia fondov Instituta arkheologii, g. Kyiv). Kyiv.

Petrauskas, O. V., Pasternak, V. V. 2003. Glass vessels from the burial ground of Velyka Bugaivka of Cherniakhivs’ka culture on the Middle Dnieper. Arheologia, 4, p. 65-76.

Petrauskas, O. V., Shishkin, R. G. 2013. Mogilnik i poselenie cherniakhovskoi kultury u s. Velikaia Bugaevka (arkheologicheskii istochnik) (Oium, 2). Kyiv: IA NANU, IIO NPU im. M. P. Dragomanova.

Petrov, V. P. 1964. Cherniakhovskii mogilnik (po materialam raskopok V. V. Khvoiki v 1900-1901 gg.). In: Rybakov, B. A., Symonovich, E. A. (eds.) Drevnosti epokhi slozheniia vostochnogo slavianstva. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, 116, p. 53-117.

Reida, R. M., Heiko, A. V., Sapiehin, S. V. 2016. Burial 115 Shyshaky cemetery with ornamented glass beaker. In: Petrauskas, O. V., Gorbanenko, S. A., Gopkalo, O. V. (eds.). Cherniakhivska kultura: do 85-richchia vid dnia narodzhennia I. S. Vynokura (Oium, 5). Kyiv: IA NANU, p. 20-28.

Reida, R. M., Heiko, A. V., Sapiehin, S. V. 2021. The glass beaker with eclectic features from burial No. 112 of the Shyshaky cemetery. Arheologia, 4, p. 95-109. https://doi.org/10.15407/arheologia2021.04.095.

Romanova, G. A. 1988. Vily Yarugskie - mogilnik IV v. n. e. In: Kropotkin, V. V. (ed.) Mogilniki cherniakhovskoi kultury. Moskva: Nauka, p. 133-141.

Rosokhatskii, A. A. 1987. Stekliannye kubki iz pamiatnikov cherniakhovskoi kultury stepnoi zony mezhdurechia Dnestra i Dunaia. In: Samoilova, T. L. (ed.) Novye issledovaniia po arkheologii Severnogo Prichernomoria. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, p. 143-148.

Rumiantseva, O. S. 2016. Cast glass from the Chernyakhov culture settlement of Komarov: prestigious vessels or raw materials for a glass workshop? Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii, 245, p. 203-218.

Rumiantseva, O. S. 2017. Glass Working beyond the Limes: New Data on the Manufacturing Organization and the Chronology of the Komarov Workshop. Stratum Plus, 4, p. 141-164.

Rumiantseva, O. S. 2020. Konicheskie kubki v areale cherniakhovskoi kultury: kollektsiia Istoricheskogo muzeia i otkhody masterskoi v Komarove. In: Rukavishnikova, I. V., Radiush, O. A. (ed.). Drevnie pamiatniki, kultury i progress. A caelo usque ad centrum. A potentia ad actum. Ad honores. Moskva: IA RAN, p. 172-179. https://doi.org/10.25681/IARAS.2020.978-5-94375-317-6.172-179

Rumiantseva, O. S., Lyubichev, M. V., Trifonov, A. A. 2018. Die chemische Zusammensetzung von Glas aus den archäologischen Komplexen in Vojtenkij 1 und die Herkunft der Gefäße der Černjachov‑Kultur (vorläufige Forschungsergebnisse). In: Lyubichev, M., Myzgin, K. (ed.). Khronologiia i monetnye nakhodki pozdnerimskogo vremeni i epokhi Velikogo pereseleniia narodov. Aktualnye arkheologicheskie issledovaniia v Tsentralnoi i Vostochnoi Evrope. Materialy polevogo seminara na baze ekspeditsii vozle s. Voitenki, 15-17 sentiabria 2016 goda (Ostrogothica-Serie (Hefte), 3), p. 146-181.

Rumiantseva, O. S., Shcherbakov, I. B. 2016. Raw Glass from Komarov Settlement on the Middle Dniester: chemical composition and new data on the features and chronology of a Late Roman glass workshop. Stratum Plus, 4, p. 299-315.

Simonenko, A. V., Sikoza, D. N. 2020. Terminus ante quem der spätskythischen Kultur am Untere Dnepr. In: Lyubichev, M., Myzgin, K. (ed.) Mezhdu Vostokom i Zapadom (Inter Orientem et Occidentem): Sbornik statei k 65-letiiu doktora Erdmute Shulttse i 20-letiiu Germano-Slavianskoi arkheologicheskoi ekspeditsii (Ostrogothica-Serie (Bände), 3). Kharkov: KhNU imeni V. N. Karazina, p. 288-301.

Symonovich, E. A. 1952. Pogrebeniia V-VI vv. n. e. u s. Danilova Balka. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta istorii materialnoi kultury, 48, p. 62-70.

Symonovich, E. A. 1957. Stekliannaia posuda serediny I tysiacheletiia nashei ery s Nizhnego Dnepra. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii, 69, p. 22-30.

Symonovich, E. A. 1960. Raskopki mogilnika u ovcharni sovkhoza Pridneprovskogo na Nizhnem Dnepre. In: Rybakov, B. A. (ed.). Cherniakhovskaia kultura. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, 82, p. 192-238.

Symonovich, E. A. 1964. Stekliannye kubki iz Zhuravki. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologii, 102, p. 8-12.

Symonovich, E. A. 1967. Itogi issledovanii cherniakhovskikh pamiatnikov v Severnom Prichernomore. In: Rybakov, B. A, Symonovich, E. A. (ed.). Istoriia i arkheologiia yugo-zapadnykh oblastei SSSR nachala nashei ery. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, 139, p. 205-237.

Symonovich, E. A. 1977. La verrerie des monuments de la culture de Tcherniakhovo, dans les regions du Dniepr et de la Mer Noire. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 1, p. 176-186.

Symonovich, E. A. 1979. Koblevskii i Ranzhevskii mogilniki okolo g. Odessy. In: Symonovich, E. A. (ed.) Mogilniki cherniakhovskoi kultury, Moskva: Nauka, p. 63-111.

Chornyi, A. M. 2015. Glassware of Cherniakhiv culture (historiographic aspect). Arheologia, 1, p. 125-144.

Schultze, E., Lyubichev, M. 2018. Zu einer Gruppe von Körpergräbern im nordwestlichen Bereich des Gräberfeldes der Černjachov‑Kultur, Vojtenki: Fragen zur Chronologie In: Lyubichev, M., Myzgin, K. (ed.). Khronologiia i monetnye nakhodki pozdnerimskogo vremeni i epokhi Velikogo pereseleniia narodov. Aktualnye arkheologicheskie issledovaniia v Tsentralnoi i Vostochnoi Evrope. Materialy polevogo seminara na baze ekspeditsii vozle s. Voitenki, 15-17 sentiabria 2016 goda. (Ostrogothica-Serie (Hefte), 3), p. 121-145.

Schultze, E., Lyubichev, M., Gella, E. 2019. Die späten Gräber des Gräberfeldes in Vojtenki und die letzte Phase der Černjachov-Kultur in der Waldsteppe zwischen Dnepr und Severskij Donec. In: Petrauskas, O. V., Gopkalo, O. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. (ed.). Starozhytnosti varvarskykh plemen u pershii polovyni I tys. n. e.: do 90-richchia V. D. Barana (Oium, 6). Kyiv: IA NANU, p. 13-49.

Shchapova, Yu. L. 1978. Un atelier de production du verre pres du village de Komarovo (IIIe-IVe s. de n. è.). Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 3, p. 230-242.

Antonaras, A. Ch. 2017. Glassware and Glassworking in Thessaloniki 1st Century BC - 6th Century AD. Oxford: Oxuniprint.

Barkoczi, L. 1988. Pannonische Glasfunde in Ungarn, Studia Archaeologica, 9, Budapest.

Cholokova, A. I. 2015. Networks of distribution at the margins of the Empire. Late Antique glass vessels from the Lower Danube region. Thesis for Ph. D. in Archaeology, University College London.

Clairmont, C. W. 1963. The Glass Vessels. In: Perkins, A. (ed.). The excavations at Dura-Europos conducted by Yale University and the French Academy of inscriptions and letters. Final report IV, Part V. New Haven: Dura-Europos publications.

Cool, H. E. M. 1995. Glass vessels of the fourth and early fifth century in Roman Britain. In: Foy, D. (ed.). Le verre de lʼAntiquité tardive et du Haut Moyen Âge. Typologie-Chronologie-Diffusion. Association Française pour l’Archéologie du Verre, VIIIe rencontre, Guiry-en-Venix, 18-19 novembre 1993. Musée archéologique départemental du Val d`Oise. p. 11-26.

Cool, H. E. M., Price, J. 1995. Roman vessel glass from excavations in Colchester, 1971-85. Colchester Archaeological Report, 8, Colchester: Colchester Archaeological Trust Ltd.

Dévai, K. 2016. Glass vessels from late Roman times found in Pannonia. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 67. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, p. 255-286. https://doi.org/10.1556/072.2016.67.2.4

Eggers, H.-J. 1951. Der Römische Import im Freien Germanien. Hamburg: Hamburgisches Museum für Völkerkunde und Vorgeschichte.

Fünfschilling, S. 2015. Die römischen Gläser aus Augst und Kaiseraugst. Kommentierter Formenkatalog und ausgewählte Neufunde 1981-2010 aus Augusta Raurica. Text und Formenkatalog. Forschungen in Augst, 51. Augst: Museum Augusta Raurica.

Gavritukhin 2017 Glass vessels of the final of the Chernyakhov culture. In: Na hranicích impéria. Extra fines imperii. Jaroslavu Tejralovi k 80. narozeninám. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, p. 83-109.

Goethert-Polaschek, K. 1977. Katalog der romischen Glaser des Rheinischen Landesmuseums Trier. Trierer Grabungen und Forschungen, 9. Mainz am Rhein: Von Zabern.

Gudkova, A. V., Schultze, E. 2017. Gräberfeld und Siedlung Nagornoe 2. Ein Fundplatz der Sântana de Mureș-Černjachov-Kultur an der Unteren Donau. Archäologie in Eurasien, 35. Bonn: Habelt-Verlag.

Harden, D. B. 1936. Roman Glass from Karanis Found by the University of Michigan, Archaeological expedition in Egypt, 1924-1929. University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, 41. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Hayes, J. 1975. Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum: a Catalogue. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum.

Isings, С. 1957. Roman glass from dated finds. Archaeologica Traiectina, II. Groningen/Djakarta: J. B. Wolters.

Lazar, I. 2003. Rimsko steklo Slovenije (The Roman glass of Slovenia). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC.

Lazar, I. 2008. New Evidence about Roman Glass Production in Celeia (Noricum). Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Archäologie und Kunstgeschichte, 65 (Heft 1-2). Zürich: Verlag Karl Schwegler AG.

Petrauskas, O. V. 2003. Die Gräberfelder der Černjachov–Kultur von Kosanovo und Gavrilovka - eine vergleichende Studie zu Chronologie, Bestattungssitten und ethnokulturellen Besonderheiten. Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission, 84, S. 224-362.

Petrauskas, O. V. 2017. Übergang von der Stufe C2 zu C3 in der Černjachov-Kultur (auf dem Beispiel der Glasschalen mit Ringboden). Ephemeris Napocensis, 27, p. 123-154.

Price, J., Cottam, S. 1998. Romano-British glass vessels: a handbook. Practical Handbooks in Archaeology, 14. York: Council for British Archaeology.

Rau, G. 2008. Spätantike Facettschliffgläser in Nord- und Osteuropa. Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica, 40, S. 221-240.

Rumyantseva, O., Belikov, C. 2017. A late Roman glass workshop at Komarov (Middle Dniester) and the problem of the origin of ‘Barbarian’ facet cut beakers. In: Wolf, S., de Pury-Gysel, A. (edd.). Annales du 20e Congrès de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre. Friburg/Romont, 7-11 septembre 2015. Romont. p. 257-266.

Rütti, B. 1991. Die römischern Gläser aus Augst und Kaiseraugst. Forschungen in Augst, 13 (2). Augst: Römermuseum Augst.

Schepachenko, V. 2020. Glasschalen vom Typ Weklice aus den Gräbern 110 und 211 des spätkaiserzeitlich-/frühvölkerwanderungzeitlichen Gräberfeldes Vojtenki 1. Študijné zvesti Archeologického ústavu Slovenskej akadémie vied, 67 (1), p. 77-101. https://doi.org/10.31577/szausav.2020.67.4

Stawiarska, T. 2014. Roman and Early Byzantine Glass from Romania and Nothern Bulgaria. Archaeological and technological study. Bibliotheca Antiqua, XXIV, Warsaw: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Straume, E. 1987. Gläser mit Facettenschliff aus skandinavischen Gräbern des 4. und 5. Jahrhunderts n.Chr. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Vasil’ev, A. A. 2017. 4.3 Chronologie der Nekropole Nagornoe 2. In: Gudkova, A. V., Schultze, E. Gräberfeld und Siedlung Nagornoe 2. Ein Fundplatz der Sântana de Mureș-Černjachov-Kultur an der Unteren Donau. Archäologie in Eurasien, 35. Bonn: Habelt-Verlag. S. 125-133

Weinberg, G. D., Stern, E. M. 2009. Vessel Glass. The Athenian Agora, 34. Princeton: The American school of classical studies at Athens.

Whitehouse, D. 2006. Price, R. W. (ed.). Glass. A Pocket Dictionary of Terms Commonly Used to Describe Glass and Glassmaking. New York: The Corning Museum of Glass.


Abstract views: 85
PDF Downloads: 21
Published
2022-03-23
Section
To the History of Ancient Crafts