Excavation “Orient” of the Necropolis of Olbia

Keywords: necropolis, burial, sepulchral rites, cremation, undercut, crypt.

Abstract

At the excavation of Olbia in 2010—2018 a new site, called the “Orient”, by the name of the nearest benchmark, was explored by wide areas method. During works, it was established that this territory has some specific features: firstly, only objects associated with sepulchral actions are found here, no traces of any other household activity were found. Secondly, this territory was used for burials throughout almost the entire existence of ancient Olbia — from the middle of VI c. BC to the beginning of III c. AD. Thirdly, there are all types of funeral structures known at Olbian necropolis, with the exception of large stone crypts under high barrows. In connection with this, the generalization of the results obtained has become relevant.

Total investigated area is 925 sq. m. The average depth was 1.0—1.1 m from the modern day surface. The stratigraphy of the excavation site is simple: a layer of turf and humus up to 0.2 m thick lies on top, a layer of light (dark yellow) sandy loam with various impurities lies below, and a layer of pre-continental loam of red color with separate mass inclusions of lime lies below. On this square, 67 different-time burials of various types were found, as well as 50 other objects associated with the sepulchral tradition. At the excavation site, four large chronological periods can be distinguished, which generally correspond to the historical periodization of Olbia: Late Archaic — Early Classical, Classical, Late Classical – Hellenistic and Roman.

It was found that this territory was really used exclusively for performing funeral and memorial activities throughout almost the entire history of ancient Olbia. For each period there wasn’t any location system for burials. The typological diversity of funerary structures increases during time from period to period. The quantitative ratio of objects to the length of time varies, but the peak of using this territory for burials and related rites falls on the Roman period, i. e., at a time when it was as far from the residential area of Olbia as possible. In a comparative analysis, it is possible to distinguish individual elements of funeral rites, which are preserved throughout the entire existence of the necropolis. For example, the use of “ancient” things as part of funerary inventory.

References

Buiskikh, A. V. 2013. Arkhaicheskaia raspisnaia keramika iz Olvii. Kyiv: Starodavnii svit.
Buiskikh, A. V., Denisova, A. A., Ivchenko, A. V. 2016. Zolotye iuvelirnye izdeliia iz Olvii. Kolektsii naukovykh fondiv Instytutu arkheolohii NAN Ukrainy (problemy ta vidkryttia). Arkheolohiia ta davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 1, pp. 63-79.
Buiskikh, A. V., Ivchenko, A. V. Otchet o raskopkakh na territorii nekropolya Olvii v 2018 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. e. 2018/bn.
Buravchuk, O. Ie. 2013. Raspisnaia keramika ellinisticheskoi epokhi iz zemlianogo sklepa Olvii. Bosporskii fenomen. Greki i varvary na evraziiskom perekrestke: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii (Sankt-Peterburg, 19-22 noiabria 2013 g.). Sankt-Peterburg: Nestor-Istoriia, pp. 634-639.
Burakov, A. V. 1979. Kamianyi sklep Olviiskoho nekropolia. Arheologia, 31, p. 75-82.
Burakov, A. V. 1980. Zemlianoi sklep Olviiskogo nekropolia. Issledovaniia po antichnoi arkheologii Severnogo Prichernomoria. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, pp. 64-75.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2012. Otchet o raskopkakh na territorii nekropolia i predmestia Olvii v 2012 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. e., 2012/11b.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2013. Otchet o raskopkakh na territorii nekropolia i predmestia Olvii v 2013 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. e., 2013/21.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2015. Otchet o raskopkakh na territorii nekropolia Olvii v 2015 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. e., 2015/bn.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2016. Otchet o raskopkakh na territorii nekropolia Olvii v 2016 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. e., 2016/34.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2016b. Pogrebenie s “kladom” delfinov na nekropole Olvii. Starodavnie Prychornomoria. Odesa: ONU, XI, pp. 212-216.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2017. Otchet o raskopkakh na territorii nekropolia Olvii v 2017 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. e., 2017/bn.
Ivchenko, A. V. 2018. Postpogrebalnaia obriadnost na nekropole Olvii. Drevnie nekropoli: pogrebalno - pominalnaia obriadnost, pogrebalnaia arkhitektura i planirovka nekropolei. Trudy IIMK RAN. Sankt-Peterburg, 47, pp. 201-205.
Ivchenko, A. 2018a. Zemlianye sklepy nekropolia Olvii (ot ellinizma k rimskomu vremeni). Forum Olbicum II: pamiati V. V. Krapivinoi (do 150-richchia doslidzhennia Olvii). Materialy Mizhnarodnoi arkheolohichnoi konferentsii, 4-6 travnia 2018 r. Mykolaiv, pp. 48-50.
Kozub, Yu. I. 1974. Nekropol Olvii V-IV st. do n. e. Kyiv.
Kozub, Iu. I. 1984. Istoricheskaia topografiia nekropolia Olvii. Antichnaia kultura Severnogo Prichernomoria. Kiev, pp. 156-174.
Kozub, Iu. I. 1986. Stekliannye balzamarii iz nekropolia Olvii. Antichnaia kultura Severnogo Prichernomoria v pervye veka nashei ery. Kiev, pp. 41-52.
Kozub, Iu. I. 1987. Pogrebalnye sooruzheniia nekropolei Olvii i eio okrugi. Kultura naseleniia Olvii i eio okrugi v arkhaicheskoie vremia. Kiev, pp. 27-35.
Kozub, Iu. I. 2002. Nadgrobiia nekropolia Olvii rimskogo vremeni. Bosporskij fenomen. Pogrebalnyie pamiatniki i sviatilishcha. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii. Part 2. Sankt-Peterburg, pp. 37-41.
Nazarchuk, V. I. 1988. Okhrannyie raskopki na territorii Olvii. Antichnye drevnosti Severnogo Prichernomoria. Kiev, pp. 194-203.
Papanova, V. A. 1993. Nekropol Olvii (istoriia issledovaniia, itogi raskopok). Berdiansk.
Papanova, V. A. 1997. Pominalnyi obriad olviopolitov. Nikonii i antichnyi mir Severnogo Prichernomoria. Odessa: Vetakom, pp. 156-161.
Papanova, V. A. 2000. Chernolakovaia keramika iz semeino-rodovogo uchastka nekropolia Olvii. Starozhytnosti Stepovoho Prychornomoria i Krymu. Zaporizhzhia, VIII, pp. 194-216.
Papanova, V. A. 2001. Osnovnye itogi okhrannykh raskopok uchastka semeinykh zakhoronenii na nekropole Olvii. Olviia ta antychnyi svit. Materialy naukovykh chytan. Prysviachenykh 75-richchiu utvorennia istoryko-arkheolohichnoho zapovidnyka “Olviia” NAN Ukrainy. Kyiv: IA NANU, pp.103-105.
Papanova, V. A. 2004. Pominalno-pogrebalnye obriady nekropolia Olvii, sviazannye s kultom khtonicheskikh bogov i geroiev. Naukovi pratsi istorychnoho fakultetu Zaporizkoho derzhavnoho universytetu. Zaporizhzhia, XVIII, pp.296-300.
Papanova, V. A. 2005. Amfory v pominalno - pogrebalnom obriade nekropolia Olvii. Etnic Contacts and Cultural Exchanges North and West of the Black Sea from the Greek colonization to the Ottomon Conquest. Iasi, pр. 221-237.
Papanova, V. A. 2006. Urochishche sto mogil (nekropol Olvii Pontiiskoj). Kiev.
Parovich-Peshikan, M. 1974. Nekropol Olvii ellinisticheskogo vremeni. Kiev.
Skudnova, V. M. 1988. Arkhaicheskii nekropol Olvii. Publikatsyia odnoi kollektsii. Leningrad.
Tolstikov, V. P. 2011. K probleme «vzaimovliianiia» ellinskoi i varvarskoi kultur na Bospore v VI-V vv. do n. e. Bosporskii fenomen: naselenie, iazyki, kontakty. Sankt-Peterburg, pp. 54-58.
Zhuravlev, D. V., Lomtadze, G. A. 2007. Keramicheskie kompleksy ellinisticheskogo vremeni iz nekropolia Olvii. Arheologia, 1, pp. 78-91.

Abstract views: 31
PDF Downloads: 31
Published
2019-12-26
Section
Articles