The Embodiment of the Plot “After Death Meal” in the Ancient Funerary Monuments of the Northern Black Sea Region

Keywords: burial rite, posthumous fate, “afterlife meal”, gravestone, crypt chamber.

Abstract

In the first centuries of our era, the Greek cities of the Northern Black Sea region experienced crisis processes. They resulted in significant changes in the life of policies, including the burial rite. The significance of individual plots used in its performance changes. The plot of the “afterlife meal” and certain types of funerary objects, in which it was embodied, are widely spread.

Two types of such objects have been identified and analyzed: stone tombstones with corresponding images and underground crypts with niches – beds in the chambers. Earlier, the corresponding stone tombstones appear in small quantities in Olbia in the Hellenistic period. Since the beginning of the new era, they are widely spread throughout the Northern Black Sea region.

On the tombstones the interior of the house and the deceased, reclining on the boxes during the “afterlife meal”, is often depicted. The same interior is embodied in the internal structure of the underground crypts chambers. In this niche – beds symbolize the burial bed. Such crypts appear in insignificant quantities in Hellenistic Olbia, but they are also widely spread from the 1st c. AD throughout the Northern Black Sea.

Thus, the plot of the “afterlife meal”, widely known in the ancient world, on the territory of the Northern Black Sea region is embodied in at least two categories of archaeological monuments – stone tombstones with corresponding images and underground crypts with niches – stove beds. Such monuments appear in small numbers in Hellenism, and since the beginning of the Roman era they have become widespread. This is partly due to the intensification of the process of “heroization” of the dead and changes in the social structure of the population of this region.

References

Akimova, L.I. 2007. Iskusstvo Drevnei Gretsii. Klassika. Sankt-Peterburg.
Aktova, L.I., Britova, N.N., Zabelina, V.S. i dr. 1987. Antichnaia skulptura iz sobraniia Gosudarstvennogo Muzeia Istorii Iskusstv im. A.S. Pushkina. Moskva.
Alexandrescu-Vianu, M. 1977. Le banquet funéraire sur les stèles de la Mésie Inférieure: schémas et modèles. Dacia. NS, vol. 21, рр. 139-166.
Alexandrescu-Vianu, M. 1985. Les stèles funéraires de la Mésie Inférieure.Dacia. NS, vol. 29, 1-2, рр. 57-79.
Antichnaia skulptura Khersonesa. Katalog. Kyiv, 1976.
Ares, F. 1992. Chelovek pered litsom smerti. Moskva.
Asmus, V.F. 1976. Antichnaia filosofiia. Moskva.
Buiskykx, A.V. 2005. Do pytannia pro mohylni pamiatnyky nekropolia Khersonesa Tavriiskoho IV-III st. do n. e. Arkheolohiia. 1, pp. 47-57.
Buiskikh, A.V. 2008. Prostranstvennoe razvitie Khersonesa Tavricheskogo v antichnuiu epokhu. Simferopol.
Chekal, A.G. 2008. Epigrafika v sakralnom i pogrebalnom iskusstve Palmiry I Dura-Evropos. Shodoznavchi studii. Visnyk Kharkivskoi derzhavnoi akademii dyzainu I mystetstv: za zagaln. red. Danilenko V. Ia. Kharkiv, 9 (iss. 1), pp. 56-68.
Cremer, M. 1991. Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien. 1. Mysien. Asia Minor Studien. Bonn, bd. 4,1.
Cremer, M. 1992. Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien. 2. Bithynien. Asia Minor Studien. Bonn, bd. 4,2.
Denisova, V.I. 1988. Stikhotvornaia drevnegrecheskaia nadpis iz Olvii. Sovetskaia arkheologiia. 1, pp. 251-256.
Fomin, M.V. 2011. Pogrebalnaia traditsiia i obriad v vizantiiskom Khersonese (IV-X vv.). Kharkov.
Gaidukevich, V.F. 1959. Nekropoli nekotorykh bosporskikh gorodov. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR. 69, pp. 228-229.
Ivanova, A.P. 1961. Skulptura i zhivopis Bospora. Kyiv.
Ivanova, H.P. 1970. Stsena “zagrobnoi trapezy” na khersoneskikh nadgrobnykh relefakh. Arkheologiia. vol. 23, pp. 74-90.
Ivanova, A.P., Chubova, A.P., Kolesnikova, L.G. i dr. 1976. Antichnaia skulptura Khersonesa. Kyiv.
Ivchenko, A.V. 2016. Rannie zemlianye sklepy nekropolia Olvii. Eminak. Naukovyi shchokvartalnyk. “Olviiskyi forum”. Pamiati V.V. Krapivinoi. Kyiv; Mykolaiv, 4 (16) (zhovten-hruden), pp. 143-147.
Ivchenko, A.V. 2017. O ranneellinisticheskikh sklepakh Olvii. Pivnichne Prychornomoria za antychnoi doby (na poshanu S.D. Kryzhytskoho). Kyiv, pp. 53-63
Ivchenko, A.V. 2018. Zemlianye sklepy nekropolia Olvii (ot ellinizma k rimskomu vremeni). Forum Olbicum II: pamiati V.V. Krapivinoi (do 150-richchia doslidzhennia Olvii). Materialy Mizhnarodnoi arkheolohichnoi konferentsii, 4-6 travnia 2018 r.Mykolaiv, pp. 48-50.
Kulakovskii, Iu.A. 1891. Kerchenskaia khristianskaia katakomba 491g. Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. 6, pp. 1-30.
Kulakovskii, Iu. 1896. Drevnosti Iuzhnoi Rossii. Dve kerchenskie katakomby s freskami. Prilozhenie: khristianskaia katakomba, otkrytaia v 1895 godu.Materialy po arkheologii Rossii. Sankt-Peterburg, 19.
Marti, Iu. Iu. 1929. Raskopki gorodishcha Kiteia v 1928 g. Simferopol.
Maslennikov, A.A. 1982. Nekotorye osobennosti nekropolei gorodov Evropeiskogo Bospora pervykh vekov n. e. Sovetskaia arkheologiia. 1, pp. 33-43.
Maslennikov, A.A. 1997. Tcarskaia khora Bospora. Tezisy dokladov. Problemy istorii i arkheologii Ukrainy. Kharkov, pp. 51.
Matkovskaia, T.A. 1999. Kompozitsionnoe primenenie arkhitekturnykh elementov i rastitelnogo dekora v nadgrobiiakh Evropeiskogo Bospora (II v. do r.kh. - II v. n. e.). Arkheologiia i istoriia Bospora. Kerch, 3, pp. 113-120.
Matkovskaia, T.A. 2003. Dekorativnaia skulptura iz sobraniia kerchenskogo lapidariia. Bospor Kimmeriiskii i varvarskii mir v period antichnosti i srednevekovia.Materialy IV Bosporskikh chtenii. Kerch, pp. 171-173.
Matkovskaia, T.A. 2007. K izdaniiu svoda pamiatnikov kerchenskogo lapidariia.Bospor Kimmeriiskii i varvarskii mir v period antichnosti i srednevekovia. Materialy VIII Bosporskikh chtenii. Kerch, pp. 216-218.
Miyatevŭ, K. 1925. Dekorativnata zhivopis na Sofiiskii nekropol. Sofiia.
Ovcharov, D. 1977. Arkhitektura i dekoratsia na starokhristiianskite grobnitci v nashite zemli. Arkheologiia. vol. 4, pp. 24-25.
Parovich-Peshikan, M. 1974. Nekropol Olvii ellinisticheskogo vremeni. Kyiv.
Papanova, V.A. 2006. Urochishche Sto mogil (nekropol Olvii Pontiiskoi). Kyiv.
Rusiaeva, A.S. 1992. Religiia i kulty antichnoi Olvii. Kyiv.
Rusiaeva, A.S. 1999. Vozveshchai zhe, stela, o moei smerti (olviiskie epitafii).Letopis Prichernomoria. Archeologiia, istoriia, literatura, numizmatika. Kherson, 3, pp. 7-13.
Savostina, E.A. 1992. Mnogoiarusnye stely Bospora: semantika i struktura.Soobshcheniia Gosudarstvennogo Muzeia Istorii Iskusstv. 10, pp. 357-386.
Shkorpil, V.V. 1905. Otchet o raskopkakh v g. Kerchi i ego okrestnostiakh v 1903 g. Izvestiia Imperatorskoi Arkheologicheskoi komissii. 17, pp. 1-76.
Shkorpil, V.V. 1909. Otchet o raskopkakh v g. Kerchi v 1905 g. Izvestiia Imperatorskoi Arkheologicheskoi komissii. 30, pp.1-50.
Shtitelman, F.M. 1977. Antychne mystetstvo. Kyiv.
Solomonik, E.I. , 1973. Novye epigraficheskie pamiatniki Khersonesa. Kyiv.
Solomonik, E.I. 1973а. Iz istorii religioznoi zhizni v severopontiiskikh gorodakh pozdneantichnogo vremeni. (Po epigraficheskim pamiatnikam). Vestnik drevnei istorii. 1, pp. 55-77.
Sokolov, G.I. 1999. Olviia i Khersones. Ionicheskoe i doricheskoe iskusstvo. Moskva.
Zhuravlev, D.V., Zubar, V.M., Sorochan, S.B. 2004. Ekonomicheskoe razvitie, sotsialnyi i etnicheskii sostav naseleniia. Khersones Tavricheskii v seredine I v. do n. e. - VI v. n. e. Ocherki istorii i kultury. Kharkov, pp. 183-256.
Zinko, E.A. 1997. Issledovaniia bosporskikh sklepov na severnom sklone gory Mitridat. Mezhdunarodnaia konferentsiia “Vizantiia i Krym”. Tezisy dokladov. Simferopol, pp. 43-44.
Zinko, E.A. 2000. Pozdneantichnye pantikapeiskie raspisnye sklepy. Bospor Kimmeriiskii na perekreste grecheskogo i varvarskikh mirov. Materialy I Bosporskikh chtenii. Kerch, pp. 66-68.
Zinko, E.A. 2001. Novyi raspisnoi sklep pantikapeiskogo nekropolia. Bospor Kimmeriiskii i Pont v period antichnosti i srednevekovia. Materialy II Bosporskikh chtenii. Kerch, pp. 42-46.
Zinko, E.A. 2002. Issledovanie nekropolia Pantikapeia v 2001 g. Bospor Kimmeriiskii, Pont i varvarskii mir v period antichnosti i srednevekovia. Sbornik nauchnykh materialov III Bosporskikh chtenii. Kerch, pp. 100-105.
Zinko, E.A., Zinko, V.N. 2013. Rannie khristiane v Vostochnoi Tavrike. II Bakhchisaraiskie nauchnye chteniia pamiati E.V. Veimarna. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii (Bakhchisarai, 3-7 sentiabria 2013 g.). Simferopol, pp. 24.
Zubar, V.M. 1982. Nekropol Khersonesa Tavricheskogo I-IV vv. n. e. Kyiv.
Zubar, V.M. 1990. O nekotorykh aspektakh ideologicheskoi zhizni naseleniia Khersonesa Tavricheskogo v pozdneantichnyi period. Obriady i verovaniia drevnego naseleniia Ukrainy. Kyiv, pp. 64-65.
Zubar, V.M. 2003-2004. Olviia i Rimskaia imperiia: dinamika i kharakter kontaktov. Stratum Plus. 4, pp. 436-466.
Zubar, V.M. 2004. O kharaktere kulta Gerakla v Khersonesskom gosudarstve v ellinisticheskii period. Bosporskii Fenomen. T. II. Kerch, pp. 131-135.

Abstract views: 16
PDF Downloads: 24
Published
2019-06-26
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)