New Image Composition on the Quadrifolium Flap From T. М. Movchanivski’s Excavations

Keywords: quadrifolium cross, Crucifixion, Virgin Mary, Desiatynna Church, Raikovetske hillfort, T. M. Movchanivskyi

Abstract

Quadrifolium crosses from Kyiv were thoroughly considered by H. Yu. Ivakin at one time, including the finds stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine collection. The scientist mentioned data on two flaps that were found at the Desiatynna Church estate territory. They had bad conservation status and were unavailable for scientific processing. Their compositional image was possible to disassemble after the restoration activities only.

The museum cross belongs to the IV variant of type I of Ancient Rus quadrifoliums according to H. Peskova. Its variant was known for a reverse flap from the Lava settlement and a negative from the Raikovetske hillfort by this time. It depicts archangels with raised one wing and the Virgin with a disproportionately large head and wide open eyes sitting on a throne with a low back and supports the Infant’s breast. For now, the iconography of the item is complemented with an avers flap represented by the Crucifixion with the Bystanders of Mary, John the Theologian and archangels on the sides and busts of angels in the headboards  (unlike the Heavenly Lights or Birds in the previous versions).

It was managed to notice a number of patterns while comparing the cross-quadrifolium from the museum collection and a negative photo from Raikovetske. It allows claiming that the things were found at the hillfort and not at the Desiatynna Church estate territory. Collections of material from T. M. Movchanivskyi’s excavations from Raikovetske and Kyiv were handed over to the museum on the eve of the World War II, and during the war a part of things had been evacuated, and recorded in the collection lists already in the postwar period. It is possible that after the return of the evacuation items, there was confusion when checking the pre-war inventory and compiling new collection lists.

Today, there are about 22 similar findings of type I quadrifolium from ten localized places of unknown origin. Iconographic parallels among other articles of Ancient Rus metal plastic are found on icon crosses, icons etc. The appearance of all these ceremonial objects and personal piety is synchronous with the appearance of the Mongols on the borders of Ancient Rus principalities, and the survivability of the iconographic image continues to persist for the next three centuries.

References

Arkhipova, Ye. I. 2009. Kamennaia ikonka s Tamani s izobrazheniem voina-muchenika sv. Gleba. In.: K. Tsukerman (ed.). Collectanea Borisoglebica, 1, Paris: Ukrainian National Committee for Byzantine Studies, p. 157-182.
Bobrov, Yu. G. 1995. Osnovy ikonografii drevnerusskoi zhivopisi. Sankt-Peterburg: Mifril.
Gnutova, S. V., Zotova, E. Ya. 2000. Kresty, ikony, skladni. Mednoe khudozhestvennoe lite XІ - nachala XX veka iz sobraniia tsentralnogo muzeia drevnerusskoi kultury i iskusstva imeni Andreia Rubleva: Albom. Moskva: Interbuk-biznes.
Gnutova, S. V. 2006. Drevnerusskie kresty-enkolpiony s obrazom Tronnoi Bogomateri i ikh vizantiiskie prototipy. In: Peskova, A. A, Shcheglova, O. A. (ed.). Slaviano-russkoe yuvelirnoe delo i ego istoki. Mezhdunarodnaia nauchnaia konferentsiia, posviashchennaia 100-letiiu G. F. Korzukhinoi, 10-16 aprelia 2006 g., Sankt-Peterburg: Nestor-Istoriia, p. 131-133.
Goncharov, V. K. 1953. Raikovetskoe gorodishche. Kyiv: Akademiia nauk USSR.
Hotun, I. A, Kazymir, O. M., Sukhonos, A. M. 2019. Mother of God from Khodosivka. Arheologia, 1, p. 42-58. https://doi.org/10.15407/archaeologyua2019.01.042
Guruleva, V. V. 2017. The Question of the Coin-Amulet of Michael Italicus: Solidus of Justinian II (705-711) from the Hermitage Collection. In.: Musin, A. E., Shcheglova, O. A. (ed.). In stone and bronze. Essays presented in honor of Anna Peskova. Sankt-Peterburg: Nevskaia Knizhnaia Tipografiia.
Ivakin, H. Yu. 1999. Enkolpion-kvadryfolii z Kyieva. Arheologia, 2, p. 144-150.
Korzukhina, G. F., Peskova, A. A. 2003. Drevnerusskie enkolpiony. Nagrudnye kresty-relikvarii X-XIII vv. Sankt-Peterburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie.
Lazarev, V. N. 1986. Istoriia vizantiiskoi zhivopisi. Moskva: Iskusstvo.
Likhachev, N. P. 1911. Istoricheskoe znachenie italo-grecheskoi zhivopisi. Izobrazhenie Bogomateri v proizvedeniiakh italo-grecheskikh ikonopistsev i ikh vliianie na kompozitsii nekotorykh proslavlennykh russkikh ikon. Sankt-Peterburg: Imperatorskoe russkoe arkheologicheskoe obshchestvo.
Motsia, O. P. ‛Dark ages’ of Golde Horde at Southern Rus lands: historical and archaeological context. Arheologia, 2, p. 24-37. https://doi.org/10.15407/archaeologyua2017.02.024
Ovsiichuk, V. A., Krvavych, D. P. 2000. Opovid pro ikonu. Lviv: Instytut narodoznavstva NAN Ukrainy.
Pekarska, L. V., Putsko, V. H. 1989. Davnoruski enkolpiony v zbirtsi Muzeiu istorii mista Kyieva. Arheologia, 3, p. 84-94.
Peskova, A. A. 2017. On traditional manufacturing of qadrifoil encolpions in Russia. Stratum plus, 5, p. 361-374.
Pokrovskii, N. V. 2001. Evangelie v pamiatnikakh ikonografii. Moskva: Progress-Traditsiia.
Poluboiarinova, M. D. 1978. Russkie liudi v Zolotoi Orde. Moskva: Nauka.
Putsko, V. G. 2003. Vizantiisko-russkie bronzovyie bogosluzhebnyie kresty XII-XIII vekov. Stavrograficheskii sbornik. Krest v pravoslavii, 2, Moskva, p. 87-104.
Stanchak, Ya. 1993. Zbirka enkolpioniv z fondiv Lvivskoho istorychnoho muzeiu. Lvivskyi istorychnyi muzei. Naukovi zapysky, 1, p. 87-95
Terskyi, S. V. 2006. Luchesk X-XV st. Lviv: Vyd-vo Natsionalnoho universytetu ‛Lvivska politekhnika’.
Tropin, N. A. 2003. Raskopki Lavskogo selishcha bliz Eltsa. Kratkie soobshcheniia i issledovaniia po arkheologii, 214, p. 111-122.
Khanenko, B. Y., Khanenko, V. M. 1899. Drevnosti russkie. Kresty i obrazki, I. Kyiv: Fototipiia i tipohrafiia S. V. Kulzhenko.
Andreadi, R., Delivorias, A., Mouriki, D., Papageorghiou, A., Stavrou, P., Yeroulanou, A. 1976. The catalog of the exhibition ‛Vizantine icons of Cyprus’, Athens: Benaki museum.

Abstract views: 25
PDF Downloads: 0
Published
2020-09-30
Section
Publication of Archaeological Material