Garments Offerings in the Cherniakhiv–Sîntana-de-Mureş Culture Inhumations

Keywords: Cherniakhiv–Sîntana-de-Mureş culture, funeral rites, additional item or set of garment, footwear, worldview

Abstract

In a number of the Cherniakhiv–Sîntana-de-Mureş culture inhumations items or sets of garment or footwear were found separately from the skeleton, next to it or in the grave filling. According to the classification of grave goods by its functional purpose, a garment belongs to personal things of the deceased. The garment has never been considered as an independent sociological feature, but only together with vessels-“offerings”.

In the article, it is hypothesized that placement of additional item or set of garments or footwear in a grave is an independent sociological feature — a feature of a high social ranked grave.

The additional items or sets of garment or footwear were found in nine graves (their descriptions are given in the Appendix). The garment with a fibula and probably a cloak were placed in men’s graves (Nos. 3, 7), while clothes with two fibulae, like a Roman stola — in graves of women of different ages (Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6, 9). Clothes, a bag or a pair of shoes were placed next to the head of an elderly woman (No. 8).

The listed burials belong to the period not earlier than the third phase of the Cherniakhiv culture relative chronology, proposed by Ye. L. Horokhovskyi, i.e. to the second third of the 4th century and later.

Most of the discussed graves belong to the 3rd and 3rd«a» archaeological-sociological types after N. M. Kravchenko. The exception is a grave of Independents No. 13, which belongs to the 2nd type after N. M. Kravchenko.

The placement in the grave of a garment stock or footwear was a reflection of intention to provide the deceased with necessary things — a manifestation of care for the deceased or conversely of the intention to dispose from his/her personal things.

The question about the Cherniakhiv–Sîntana-de-Mureş culture footwear, about ideas and beliefs connected with it, deserves special attention.

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2021-06-14
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