Bone Carving of the Kamianka Sich

  • Anatolii Volkov Research Fellow, the Department of Preservation of historical, archaelogical and natural monuments, the National Reserve «Khortytsia» http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9381-8447
Keywords: bone carving craft, method of trace evidence, borer, spindle whorl, epiphysis, powder flask, bone item

Abstract

The manufacture of different bone items as well as treatment of bone and horn used to be among the oldest types of crafts. For centuries, people have used bone because of its prevalence and easy processing. In the 16th—18th centuries, bone continued to be used as one of the materials, but it did not receive wide distribution among Cossack crafts. Though the well-known bone powder flasks decorated with complex and intricate carvings were in usage among Cossacks, the article deals with simpler and more common in everyday life things — such as knife handle bone plates, borers, a spindle whorl, and etc.

Today we have the opportunity to explore this specific type of craft on the example of archaeological finds from one of the Zaporizhzhia Siches — the Kamianka Sich. Mass osteological material in many cases contains traces of deliberate processing or attempts to give the bone a certain shape, to obtain a product from bone or horn. Analyzing the finds of several archaeological seasons, one can deduce some common features of bone items, get an idea of spreading of this craft and its significance, and discover the everyday life of the Cossacks at the beginning of the 18th century.

The article examines bone finds made from the beginning of the 1970-ies, and also contains their general characteristic and common features. A special attention is focused on bone products; the "portion" types of bones and the production waste left during manufacture of the bone items is briefly described.

One of the main purpose of this article is to introduce into a scientific circulation a number of objects made of bone, on the same territory in a fairly short period of existence of the Kamianka Sich (1709—1711 and 1728—1734). Nowadays, unfortunately, we cannot derive a comparative analysis of the finds of bone production from other Siches or Cossack handicraft objects, but we can get an idea of the development of this type of craft using as examples the finds from the Kamianka Sich. Further archaeological research may reveal the presence of the bone carving workshop on this territory.

References

Antipina, E. E. (ed.). 2003. Arkheozoologicheskie issledovaniia: zadachi, potentsialnyie vozmozhnosti i realnyie rezultaty. Noveishie arkheozoologicheskie issledovaniia v Rossii. Moskva: Yazyki slavianskoi kultury, p. 7-34.
Boplan, H. L. 1990. Opys Ukrainy, kilkokh provintsii Korolivstva Polskoho, shcho tiahnutsia vid kordoniv Moskovii do hranyts Transylvanii, razom z yikhnimy zvychaiamy, sposobom zhyttia i vedennia voien. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka.
Borysov, V. Ye. 1972. Zvit pro arkheolohichnu rozvidku na velykomu Potomkinskomu ostrovi u delti Dnipra ta na mistsi kolyshnoi Kamianskoi Sichi (20-29 kvitnia 1972 roku). Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU. 1972/42
Borodovskii, A. P. 1997. Drevnee kostoreznoe delo yuga Zapadnoi Sibiri (vtoraia polovina ІІ tys. do n. e. - pervaia polovina ІІ tys. n. e.). Novosibirsk: Izd-vo Instituta arkheologii i etnografii SO RAN.
Volkov, A. V. 2018. Zvit pro provedennia arkheolohichnoi rozvidky na terytorii Kamianskoi Sichi u 2018 rotsi. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, b/n.
Horobets, V. M. 2007. Kamianska Sich. Entsyklopediia istorii Ukrainy. Vol. 4. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. p. 69-70.
Goshkevich, V. I. 1915. Letopis muzeia za 1913 god. Vyp. 5. Kherson: Izd. gor. upr.
Ilinskii, V. E. 1989. Otchet ob issledovaniiakh na Kamenskoi Sechi v 1989 g. Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, 1990/133.
Ilinskii, V. E. 2009. Otchet o rabote arkheologicheskoi ekspeditsii Natsionalnogo zapovednika ‛Khortitsa’ na Kamenskoi Sechi i o. Tiagin (Berislavskogo raiona, Khersonskoi oblasti). Naukovyi arkhiv IA NANU, f. 64, 2009/56.
Klevezal, G. A. 2007. Printsipy i metody opredeleniia vozrasta mlekopitaiushchikh. Moskva: T-vo nauchnykh izdanii KMK.
Serheeva, M. S. 2012. Kostorizna sprava u davnomu Kolodiazhyni. Arheologia, 3. p. 118-125.
Sokulskii, A. L. 1974. Otchet o rabote DAE-1974.
Titova, I. S. 2012. Kolektsiia rohovykh porokhivnyts XVIII st. v Muzei istorii zaporozkoho kozachestva. Zapovidna Khortytsia. Zbirka naukovykh prats. Zaporizhzhia. p. 68-73.
Telehin, D. Ya., Vynokur, I. S., Tytova, O. M., Svieshnikov, I. K. 1997. Arkheolohiia doby ukrainskoho kozatstva XVI-XVIII st. Kyiv: VIPOL.
Shamanaev A. V. 1997. Tekhnologiia obrabotki kosti i roga v srednevekovom Khersone: po materialam raskopok portovogo kvartala 2. Antichnaia drevnost i srednie veka, 28. p. 49-66.
Yavornytskyi, D. I. 1990. Istoriia zaporizkykh kozakiv. Lviv: Svit.
Bradley, R. 2005. The Moon and the Bonfire. An Investigation of Three Stone Circles in Northeast Scotland. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Cnotlivy, E. 1970. Niektóre problemy badań nad wczesnośredniowiecznym rogownictwem polskim. Archeologia Polski, XV, Zesz. 2, p. 499-518.

Abstract views: 30
PDF Downloads: 16
Published
2021-09-23
Section
To the History of Ancient Crafts